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tiistai 21. heinäkuuta 2015

Jordan, Cool Facts #50

<= 49. Libya                                                                                                                    51. Eritrea =>




1. King Abdullah II and Queen Rania  

King Hussein the ruler since the year 1952, died in 1999 and thus his son, Abdullah II, was crowned as the new king. The new king has begun to move in disguise among the common people like the Bagdad Caliphs in the Thousand and One Nights tales.

Queen Rania is Abdullah's wife and she is known to advocate for the human rights, education and other cool stuff. She has been voted as one of the most beautiful monarchs in the world and she is very active in different social medias Youtube, Facebook and Twitter.

Queen Rania's social medias: 

Youtube: QueenRania - nearly 40,000 subscriptions
Facebook: Queen Rania - 4,2 million likes
Twitter: QueenRania - 3,97 million followers

Queen Rania and King Abdullah II 


2. Palestine and Jordan 

In 1920 the League of Nations established the mandate area of Palestine and Jordan was part of it. The United Kingdom governed this mandate area. In 1923 the area east from the Jordan River was separated from Palestine as Transjordan, which got autonomy in 1928. Finally in 1946 Jordan became independent. The flags of Palestine and Jordan are still very similar because of their common past. The star in the flag of Jordan is the only thing that separates these two flags.



The seven points in the star represent the seven first verses in the first suura in the Quran and the seven hills on which the capital, Amman was founded.



3. Pan-Arab Colors 

The Pan-Arab colors were inspired by the verses of an Iraqi poet, Safi al-Din al-Hilli, who served the Egyptian court in the 1300s.

"We Arabs are the people, whom honor prohibits to damage anyone, who doesn't hurt us. White are our acts, black our battles, green our fields, and red our swords" - Safi al-Din al-Hilli

These verses inspired the nationalists who gathered in Istanbul, as they were planning to establish a united Arab state when the Ottoman Empire was falling. This color combination of white, black, green and red was used first in a revolt against the Ottoman Empire in 1916.

This flag of the Arab Revolt inspired many flags of the Arab countries, but the flags of Palestine and Jordan resemble most the first Pan-Arab flag.



4. Autocratic Monarchy

Jordan is an autocratic monarchy and party activities were prohibited until the year 1991. The king appoints the prime minister, approves the laws and can dissolve the parliament. The party institution is very undeveloped and even the Muslim Brotherhood hasn't succeeded as it has in Jordan's neighboring countries.



5. Lowest point on dry land 

The lowest point on dry land in the world is the shore of the Dead Sea, which is 418 meters below sea level. This area is shared by Israel, West Bank and Jordan. 

The Dead Sea has salt 33% in the water so it's unable to support life and it's threatened to evaporate. Jordan needs water really badly because 80% of the land is fruitless desert which doesn't even have oil like the other Arab countries. 

Shores of Dead Sea


Timeline

600s Arabs spread Islam and Arabic language
700s Jordan belongs to the Umayyad Empire led from Damascus
1000-1200 Crusaders fight over the Holy land and Jordan
1260 Egypt Mamluks take Jordan under their control
1500s The Ottoman Empire conquers Jordan to their empire
1920 Jordan becomes part of the mandate area of Palestine governed by the UK
1923 Jordan is separated from Palestine as Transjordan
1928 Transjordan gets autonomy
1946 Jordan becomes independent
1948 Arabs reject the Palestine division plan made by UN and start war against Israel, half a million Palestinians move to Jordan
1951 King Abdullah is murdered
1952 King Abdullah's 15-year old grandson Hussein ibn Talal becomes the king and rules until 1999
1958 Federation with Iraq as the leaders of the countries are cousins, both Hashemites
1967 New wave of Palestinian refugees as Israel occupies the West Bank and East Jerusalem
1970 Civil War
1994 Jordan as the second country after Egypt, signs a peace treaty with Israel
1999 King Hussein dies and his son Abdullah II rises on the throne

Sources
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extreme_points_of_Earth
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jordan
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Rania_of_Jordan
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan-Arab_colors

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