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torstai 2. heinäkuuta 2015

Morocco, Cool Facts #40

<= 39. Algeria                                                                                                                  41. Iraq =>


1. Moroccon Dynasties 

Establishment of Moroccon state, year 789: Prophet Mohammad's nephew Ali's great grandson Idris ibn Abdallah had disputes with the Abbasid Caliphate in Bagdad so he founded his own caliphate, the unified nation of Morocco.

The Idriss dynasty fell when the Berber Almoravid dynasty took the power and after them the Almohads. The Almohads created a superpower extending from Mauritania Libya and the Iberian Peninsula. But in 1212 the Almohads lost to the unified Christian army of Castile, Aragonia, Navarra and Portugal and as a result they had to withdraw from the Iberian Peninsula.

In 1666 the Alaouite dynasty became in power and they have been in power since then. The Alaouites are the longest lasting rulers in Africa.

Idrisid dynasty 789-974
Umayyad overlordship 974-1060
Almoravid dynasty 1060-1147
Almohad dynasty 1145-1269
Marinid dynasty 1244-1465
Idrisid interlude 1465-1471
Wattasid dynasty 1472-1554
Saadi dynasty 1549-1603
Succession war 1603-1627
Reunified rule 1627-1659
Dila'i interlude 1659-1663
Alaouite 1666- now 


The Almohad Dynasty Empire


2. Western Sahara 

1884 Spain claims the area for itself
1947 Phosphate reserves were found in Sahara
1973 Polisario Front was founded to lead the area to independence
1976 The independence of Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic is declared

When the independence was declared Morocco and Mauritania started fighting over the territory because they both claimed it was theirs for historical reasons. Algeria supported the independence which made the both countries enemies of Algeria. The main reason to get the area are the vast phosphate reserves found in 1947. This is still a big dispute which harms the relationship between Algeria and Morocco. Morocco occupies the majority of the country that the Polisario Front claims for Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic.




3. The Berbers' Rif Republic 

Until the 400s the Romans controlled Morocco then called Mauritania. They called all the populations outside of the antique civilisation barbars with the Latin name barbarus, that's where the name Barbar comes from. Amazigh is the name in Berber language in which they call themselves.
In 1921 the Berber tribes revolted against the Spaniards and they managed to establish the Rif Republic. The independence of the Berber state was short as the Spanish and French troops attacked in Rif Republic in 1926 using chemical weapons and ended their independence.



4. Languages 

In Morocco the people speak three languages, French, Arabic and Berber languages. The Berbers are the native inhabitants of Morocco, who have lived in Western Africa for over 3000 years. Arabic spread to the area during the Arab conquest in the 600s, when the Arabs spread Islam. Arabic is used in school mainly and the leading universities are usually French-speaking. The majority of the population are the descendents of Arabs and Berbers.



5. Phosphate resources

Almost two thirds, 66% of the world's known phosphate deposits are in Morocco and Western Sahara which is occupied by Morocco. Phosphate and tourism are the biggest sources of foreign currency for Morocco. Only China and USA export more phosphate than Morocco.

Phosphate usage: 

Agriculture
Paints and coatings
Processing of various ceramics
Textiles
Plastics
Cleaning solutions



Timeline

40-400 Romans rule Morocco which they called Mauritania then
600s Arab conquest and spread of Islam
789 Idriss dynasty starts ruling Morocco
1040 Berber Almoravid dynasty defeats the Idriss dynasty and starts creating the  foundation of Morocco
1147 Another Berber dynasty, the Almohads follow the Almoravids and start creating a vast country
1212 Almohads have to withdraw from the Iberian Peninsula 
1400s The Portuguese and Spanish conquer bases and trade posts on the Moroccon coast 
1500s The Saadi dynasty drives the Portuguese away and they manage to prevent the conquest of the Ottomans
1600s The Alawite dynasty ends the rule of the Berber dynasties
1906 France and Spain together start controlling the country 
1912 As the last country of Africa Morocco lost its independence becoming a French protectorate and losing some areas to Spain
1923 Tanger is set into international control by the British, French, Spanish and Italians
1920s Berber tribes revolt against the Spanish, they managed to establish the independent Rif Republic in northern Morocco
1926 Rif loses independence after Spain and France attack to the area using chemical weapons
1940s After the World War the independence party Istiqlal is established
1953 Muhammad V is banished from the country and the rebellions become violent
1956 Morocco gets independence back from France including Tanger, Spain keeps Ceuta and Melilla
1961 King Muhammad V dies and his son Hassan II becomes the king and reigns for the next 38 years
1963 War against Algeria about the border
1979 Morocco takes the entire Western Sahara under its control
1982 OAU recognizes the sovereignty of Western Sahara, which leads Morocco to resign from OAU (current African Union) in 1984
1999 Muhammad VI rises on the throne
2002 Perejil Island crisis nearly leads Morocco in war against Spain

Sources
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saadi_dynasty
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alawites
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rif_Republic
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perejil_Island_crisis
http://www.wsrw.org/a117x521
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_rulers_of_Morocco
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Western_Saharan_history

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