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sunnuntai 12. heinäkuuta 2015

Somalia, Cool Facts #47

<= 46. Chad                                                                                                                     48. Israel => 


1. Birth of Somalia, 1960

In 1960 Somalia was born as an independent state when the British Somaliland and the Italian Somaliland unified. There was a referendum in the French Somaliland (Djibouti) about joining Somalia, but in the end it stayed part of France. Aden Abdullah Osman Daar was elected the first president of Somalia.

The European powers had become interested about Somalia after the Suez Canal was opened. In 1888 the British established the British Somaliland and in 1889 the Italians established the Italian Somaliland, which they had conquered from the Sultan of Oman.

Italian Somaliland (Green) before WW II


2. Last central government of Somalia 

In 1969 Somalia's president Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards during a visit in Las Anod. Six days later his assassination was followed by a military coup which led Mohamed Siad Barre to become the president. 

Siad Barre nationalized the educational institutions, banks, logistics and energy companies. Clans were banned because they were a hindrance for the unity of the state. Somalia became a single party state, which had close ties to the Soviet Union.

In 1991 Siad Barre fled from Mogadishu when the clan conflicts erupted and the fight over the power started the civil war. Since then Somalia hasn't had a stable central government.

Siad Barre (right) meets Romania's Ceauseascu in 1976


3. White pearl of the Indian Ocean 

Before the civil war began in 1991, Mogadishu was known as the White pearl of the Indian Ocean. Somalia has the longest coastline in Africa after Madagascar, which is over 3000 kilometers long. The beaches are one of the most beautiful in Africa and they would definitely be a tourist attraction if Somalia was a stable country attracting tourists bringing also wealth to the country.

Let's join the camels in the Somali beaches !


4. Regions in Somalia

Some regions in Somalia try to gain independence and some are just autonomic regions inside Somalia. Different clans rule in these regions. Somaliland has practically separated itself from Somalia and is the most stable region even though their independence isn't recognized internationally.

Somaliland: In 1991 declared independence which hasn't been recognized
Puntland: Established by the Darod clan. It was declared autonomous in 1998
South West State: established in 2002, dissoluted in 2005 but re-established in 2014
Galmudug: Established in 2006
Jubaland: autonomy proclaimed in 2011 and recognized in 2013



5. People in Somalia

Official languages: Somalia and Arabic
Ethnicities: 85% Somalis and 15% Bantus and other non-Somalis
Biggest clans: Hawiye 25%, Isaaq 22%, Darod 20%, Rahanweyn 17%, Dir 7%
Fertility rate: 6,08 children born per woman (Singapore 0,80)
Population between 0-14 years old: 44% of the population (Japan 12%)
Population over 65 years: Only 2,3%  (Japan 26%) 



Timeline

900 Arabs conquered the coasts of Horn of Africa
1400-1700 Ajuuraan Sultanate
1800 European powers become interested of Somali areas after opening the Suez canal. France conquers the current Djibouti making it the French Somaliland
1888 The British take control over the northern coast of Horn of Africa and established the British Somaliland
1889 The Italians conquered the eastern coast of Horn of Africa from sultans of Oman, they called the area Italian Somaliland
1890s Ethiopia's Emperor Menelik II prevented the Italian colonization
1941 Italy loses all its areas in Horn of Africa to the British
1950 Italy gets back its Somaliland
1954 Ogaden is returned back to Ethiopia
1960 Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland unify as the independent Federal Republic of Somalia, Adan Abdulla Osman becomes the first president of Somalia
1969 Military coup and general Mohamed Siad Barre takes over the power
1974 Western Somali Liberation Front established aiming to free Ogaden
1977 Somalia takes advantage over Ethiopia's chaotic internal situation and conquers Ogaden, The Soviet Union switches sides and supports Ethiopia. With the Cuban troops the Somali were beaten
1980 North Somalia's biggest clan Isaaq, demands autonomy
1988 Peace agreement about Ogaden
1988 Discontent against Siad Barre rises
1991 Siad Barre flees from Mogadishu when the civil war begins
1991 Somaliland (former British Somaliland) declares independence 
1992 UN sends peacekeepers and American soldiers try to bring peace
1995 UN and American troops withdraw from the country
1996 General Aidid was murdered but his son continued fighting against Ali Mahdi. Somalia lost their central government and the Somali fleed from their country
1998 Darod clan established Puntland
2002 Rahanweyn clan declares the independence of South West State 
2004 Peace talks in Kenia with 21 different armed groups led to a temporary government with Abdullahi Yusuf as president
2006 Jubaland declares independence
2006 Islamists rise in power, army of Ethiopia and USA help Abdullahi Yusuf back to power in Mogadishu
2009 Ethiopia withdrew their troops and president Yusuf resigned, Sheikh Sharif Ahmed became the new president
2011 Kenian army invaded in southern Somalia fighting against the al-Shabaab islamists

Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somalia
Maailman liput maat ja historia by Kimmo Kiljunen

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