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tiistai 26. toukokuuta 2015

Germany, Cool Facts #34

33. Switzerland <=                                                                                                           => 35. Belgium 

1. Holy Roman Empire

In 962 Otto I was crowned as the Emperor by Pope John XII in Rome. He followed the example of Charlemagne's coronation as "Emperor of the Romans" in 800. Some historians see the coronation of Otto I as the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire and some see the coronation of Charlemagne.
In the year 800 the Frank king Charlemagne was crowned as the Emperor, a title not used in three centuries. He was the first Roman emperor in Western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire since 476. After Charlemagne's death the areas were fragmented which he had ruled. These areas eventually evolved into France and Germany. Both the French and German monarchies considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire.

Holy Roman Empire timeline

476 Western Roman Empire collapses
800 Charlemagne is crowned the Emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day
817 Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious divides the lands to his three sons Lothair, Charles and Louis
840-843 Carolingian Civil War between Charlemagne's grandsons
843 Treaty of Verdun, ends the Civil War and the Kingdom is divided into three parts
888 Charles the Fat, was the last Carolingian Emperor to rule over the united empire
924 Berengar I of Italy last Holy Roman Emperor before Otto I
962 Otto I is crowned the Emperor
1530 Charles V in Bologna, becomes the last Emperor to be crowned by a pope
1806 The last Emperor Francis II abdicates the power and this ends the Holy Roman Empire, Napoleon reorganizes the empire into his satellite state, Confederation of the Rhine
1815 Confederation of the Rhine is replaced by the German Confederation

Dividing the Carolingian Empire in 1843

West Francia - Charles the Bald
Middle Francia - Lothair I
East Francia - Louis the German

2. German Unification

In 1871 Germany unified which was an expected event after the fall of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Many small German-speaking states were formed and led independently. It was evident that they would become unified some day once again. Austria was the most powerful German-speaking state at the time, but Prussia became more powerful as the time passed. First Prussia and Austria fought together against Denmark in 1864 when Prussia conquered Schleswig-Holstein. Later Prussia fought together with Italy against Austria. In 1871 Germany unified with the leading hand of Otto von Bismarck, Austria and Liechtenstein didn't join the German Empire. The humiliating fact for the French was that the crowning of the first emperor of the German Empire was made in the castle of Versailles during the Franco-German War.

Important dates in the German unification

1806 Holy German Empire falls
1806-1813 Confederation of Rhine, 13 German states
1834-1919 Zollverein, German Customs Union
1848 German Revolution
1815-1866 German Confederation, 39 German states
1866 Austro-Prussian War
1867-1871 North German Confederation, 22 German states
1870-1871 Franco-German War
1871 German Empire is created and the German states unified

3. German colonies

After the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany among other European countries started colonizing Africa. All the colonies were occupied during the World War I and officially confiscated from Germany with the Treaty of Versailles in 1920. Germany's colonies were mainly in Africa and in the Pacific.

List of German colonies between 1884-1920

German East Africa
German South West Africa
German West Africa
German New Guinea
German Samoa
Jiazhou Bay concession

4. Three Reichs

Hitler claimed that he established the third reich, what were first and second reich then ? The first one was the Holy Roman Empire and the second the German Empire which was created when Germany unified and became a colonial power, before losing all the colonies in the World War I.

962-1806 First Reich, Holy Roman Empire
1871-1918 Second Reich - German Empire
1933-1945 Third Reich - Nazi Germany

5. Economy

Germany was the biggest exporter in the world until 2009 when China surpassed it. To be more specific Germany was the biggest exporter by the value of the goods and not in the amount of goods that were exported.

Top 5 exporters of the world, 2014

1. China - 2,25 trillion
2. USA - 1,61 trillion
3. Germany - 1,55 trillion
4. Japan - 0,71 trillion
5. South Korea - 0,63 trillion

This is Germany


200 BC Germanic tribes move to Central Europe
400 Germanic tribe Franks establish a christian kingdom
843 Charlemagne's three grandsons divide the kingdom into three parts
965 Otto I establishes the Holy Roman Empire
1273 Austria's Rudolf Habsburg becomes the first recognized king after the time of interregnum when there was no king for the whole empire
1555 The Peace of Augsburg, the princes of the Holy Roman Empire states got the right to choose which division of Christianity was practiced in their domains
1618 Thirty Years War begins
1648 Peace of Westphalia, end the Thirty Years War and Spain recognizes the independence of the Dutch Republic
1700-1721 Great Northern War, at the end Sweden lost big parts of its lands
1806 Holy Roman Empire collapses during the Napoleon wars
1806-1813 Confederation of Rhine is established from the remaining 16 states after the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire
1815 Congress of Vienna, the German Confederation is established consisting of 39 German states
1862 Otto von Bismarck becomes the prime minister of Prussia
1866 Germany unites and the North-German Confederation is established
1870 Bavaria and other southern states join the Confederation except Austria
1871 Wilhelm I of Prussia becomes the emperor of the unified Germany
1919 Peace of Versailles, Germany loses all of its colonies and some of its own areas
1919-33 Weimar Republic ends in the creation of Nazi Germany
1933 Hitler becomes the Chancellor of Germany
1938 Austria and parts of Czechoslovakian areas are annexed to Germany
1939 Attack to Poland starts the World War II
1945 Germany loses the war
1949 Germany splits into two countries, West and East Germany
1961 The Berlin Wall is constructed
1973 The UN recognizes the separate Germanies
1989 The Berlin Wall is broken apart
1990 The German unification

Sources: - dividing the Carolingian empire into three parts - Charlemagne's family kuva !!

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