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torstai 23. helmikuuta 2017

Bosnia & Herzegovina, Cool Facts #167

<= 166. Montenegro                                                                                                      168. Croatia => 

1. Beginning of World War I 

The events in present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina in June 28th, 1914 started the World War I. At the time Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Austria-Hungary. In 1908 Bosnia and Herzegovina was formally transferred to Austria-Hungary from the Ottoman rule. This was opposed by Serbia, which demanded the unification of all Serb areas. 

The conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary over Bosnia and Herzegovina culminated in Sarajevo, when the Bosnian Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Austria-Hungary declared war to Serbia which led to the beginning of World War I. 

Gavrilo Princip killing Archduke Franz Ferdinand

2. Part of Ottoman Empire 1463-1908 

Over 400 years present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina was the outermost region of the Ottoman Empire. Battles against the Habsburg's Austria and the Republic of Venice were fought from there many times. 

Ottoman conquest 1463In 1463 the Kingdom of Bosnia ceased to exist after its conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In 1483 the Ottoman Empire occupied Herzegovina, which had been under Austrian control. 

Bosnian uprising 1831-1833
Bosnian ayans (landlords) revolted against the Ottoman Empire. The reason for the uprising were the reforms implemented by the Sultan to abolish the ayan system. The uprising was suppressed by the Ottoman Empire.

Austro-Hungarian occupation 1878
In 1875 Christian peasants revolted in Bosnia and they were supported by Serbia, Montenegro and Russia. Bosnia declared independence in 1878 as the Ottoman rule in Balkan region started to break up as a result of the Russo-Turkish war in 1877-1878. At the Congress of Berlin in 1878 it was decided that Austria-Hungary got the right to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina, which still technically remained part of the Ottoman Empire.

Austro-Hungarian annexation 1908
In 1908 Bosnia and Herzegovina was formally annexed to Austria-Hungary from the Ottoman Empire. This was highly protested by Serbia and Montenegro, Austria-Hungary's Balkan neighbors.

The Ottoman Empire in 1683

3. Bosnian War 1992-1995

Independence or Yugoslavia  
After the independence declarations of Slovenia and Croatia the question emerged whether to remain with Yugoslavia or seek independence. The Serbs favored remaining within Yugoslavia, while the Bosniaks and Croats favored independence.

The Serbs abandon the central government
The Serb parliament members abandoned the central government and formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In January 1992 the Assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was renamed Republika Srpska in August.

Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia
In November 1991, the party branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina of the ruling party in Croatia proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia

Referendum for independence
In 1992 the majority voted for independence, although most of the Serbs boycotted the referendum. In March 1992 the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina was declared. In the following months the declaration of independence got wide international recognition. 

Civil War
The Bosnian Serb militias, supported by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, started the war after the declaration of independence. The Bosnian Serbs managed to get much of the country under control in 1992 and their advance was accompanied by the ethnic cleansing of Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats. 

The ethnic cleansing conducted by the Serbs culminated in the Srebrenica massacre of more than 8000 Bosniak men and boys. Bosniak and Bosnian Croat forces also committed war crimes on a smaller scale and mostly during the Bosniak-Croat war. The Bosniak-Croat conflict ended in March 1994 and led to the creation of joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

Nato involvement
After the Srebrenica massacre Nato forces launched a bombing campaign against the Republika Srpska in August 1995. 

Dayton Agreement of December 1995The Bosnian Serb leadership finally agreed a negotiated settlement, which ended the active combat and roughly established the basic political structure of the present-day state. According to the agreement the country consists of two autonomous entities: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The country has a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group (Bosniak, Serb, Croat).

Bosnian War

4. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

- The World Tourism Organization estimated that between 1995-2020 Bosnia and Herzegovina will have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world - Sarajevo was ranked 43th best city in the world, when Lonely Planet ranked the best cities in the world in 2006
- Medugorje has become Europe's third most important religious place as Christians have made pilgrimages there since the reputed apparitions began in 1981
- Bosnia and Herzegovina has also become an increasingly popular skiing and Ecotourism destination 
- The Huffington Post named the country the "9th Greatest Adventure in the World for 2013"
- National Geographic named the country as the best mountain biking adventure destination for 2012

Mostar's Stari Most
Buna River near the town of Blagaj
Prokoško Lake

5. Bosnian pyramid claims

- Author Semir Osmanagic proposes that a cluster of natural hills in central Bosnia and Herzegovina are the largest human-made ancient pyramids on Earth
- The hills can be found near the town of Visoko, located northwest of Sarajevo
- The European Association of Archaeologists released a statement calling the pyramid claim as a "cruel hoax"
- After several studies of geologists, archeologists and other scientists have concluded that the hills are geological formations and not man-made

Bosnian pyramid claim


229BC Conflict between the Romans and Illyrians started
9 Rome completed the annexation of the region
395 In the partition of Rome, Pannonia and Dalmatia became parts of the Western Roman Empire as the eastern parts became part of the Byzantine Empire
455 Some claim that the region was conquered by Ostrogoths and was later changed hands between the Alans and Huns
500s Emperor Justinian had reconquered the area for the Byzantine Empire
500s-600s Slavs overwhelmed the Balkans
1100s Kingdom of Hungary and Byzantine Empire disputed over the area
1154 Banate of Bosnia emerged, although it was part of the Hungarian Crown Lands it was a de facto independent state
1377 Bosnia was elevated into a kingdom with the coronation of Tvrtko as the first Bosnian king
1391 Tvrtko died and Bosnia fell into a long period of decline
1463 The Kingdom of Bosnia ceased to exist after its conquest by the Ottoman Empire
1483 The Ottoman Empire occupied Herzegovina, which had been under Austrian control 
1648 Abkhazian Ottoman explorer Mehmed Zilli visited Bosnian cities while he was traveling around the Ottoman Empire
1699 Bosnia became the westernmost province of the Ottoman Empire after the Great Turkish War with the treaty of Karlowitz
1800s Nationalistic movements arose in the Balkans
1831-1833 Great Bosnian uprising, Bosnian ayans (landlords) revolted against the Ottoman Empire
1875-1877 Herzegovina uprising between ethnic Serbs against the Ottoman Empire
1878 Berlin Congress, Bosnia and Hertzegovina was ceded to Austria-Hungary although it remained de jure Ottoman territory 
1908 Ottoman rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina was officially ended when the area was annexed into Austria-Hungary, which was opposed by Serbia as they demanded the unification of all Serb areas
1914 Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo
1914 After the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary declared war to Serbia and so the World War I started
1918 Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
1929 The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was established
1941 Nazi Germany invaded Yugoslavia, Bosnia was annexed to the Nazi puppet regime, the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) 
1943 The Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia with Tito at its helm held its founding conference in Jajce
1945 Bosnia and Herzegovina became one of the six constituent republics in the newly established Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1991 Croatia and Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia
1992 Civil war started among the three ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs, Bosniaks and Croats started fighting against each other
1992-1995 Bosnian War, Nato-led forces ended the war after bombing against the Serb forces
2014 Protests and violent clashes in almost 20 towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina against the government over high unemployment

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