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keskiviikko 8. helmikuuta 2017

Montenegro, Cool Facts #166

<= 165. Kosovo                                                                                 167. Bosnia and Herzegovina => 




1. Origins of Montenegro's Name 

Montenegro = Originally Venetian name meaning "black mountain"

In most of the countries the name of the country is a translation of "black mountain"


Examples: 

Mali i Zi - Albanian
Hēishān Chinese
Μαυροβούνιο - Greek
Crna Gora - Montenegrin 
Karadağ - Turkish
Czarnagóra - Polish

History

The Montenegrin name Crna Gora started denoting the whole area of the present-day Montenegro in the 15th century. Originally the name Crna Gora referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići. The name started including wider mountainous regions after the Crnojević family took power in Upper Zeta. 



Bobotov Kuk on the Durmitor mountain is the symbol of Montenegro

2. Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro 1696-1852

Ecclesiastical principality 1696-1767, 1773-1852
Between 1696-1852 Montenegro was an ecclesiastical principality. This meant that the head of state was an Orthodox Prince-bishop. Danilo I of the House of Petrović-Njegoš was the first Prince-bishop and he made the title hereditary. There was only one problem, the Prince-bishops lived in selibacy and they weren't allowed to make kids. The title of a Prince-bishop was then passed from the ruling Prince-bishop to his nephew. 


The first Prince-bishop Danilo I


Monarchy 1767-1773
The ecclesiastical principality was abolished between 1767-1773, when an impostor called Little Stephen posed as Russian Emperor and crowned himself Lord of Montenegro.


Little Stephen


Secular state 1852
The last Prince-bishop of Montenegro was Danilo II Petrović-Njegoš. Danilo II married Darinka Kvekić, who was from a wealthy Serbian merchant family. Danilo ended the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro and turned the country into a secular state (principality). After doing this Prince-bishop Danilo II became Prince Danilo I of Montenegro. 


The last Prince-bishop Danilo II


3. Montenegro joins the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1918

During the World War I Montenegro was among the Allied Powers. Austria-Hungary occupied Montenegro from 1916 until October 1918. King Nicholas had fled the country during the occupation and a government in exile was set up in Bordeaux France. When the Allies liberated Montenegro, the Podgorica Assembly was convened and voted to unite Montenegro with the Kingdom of Serbia to form the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

In January 1919 the "Greens" rebelled against the decision to unite with the Kingdom of Serbia in the Christmas Uprising, but eventually they lost against the pro-unification "Whites". For the first eleven years of its existence the state was called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes before it was changed in 1929 to "Kingdom of Yugoslavia".


Yugoslavia



4. Independence in 2006 

194. Independent country in 2006
In 2006 Montenegro gained independence after 55,4% of the population voted for independence in the referendum. It was the 194. independent country at the time. 



New independent countries of Europe

26. Independent country in 1878
The previous time when Montenegro had gained independence was in 1878. After the war between Russia and Turkey, Turkey had to recognize the full independence of Serbia and Montenegro in the Berlin Conference. At the time Montenegro became the 26. independent country of the world. The independence lasted until 1918, when the Podgorica Assembly voted to unite the country with the Kingdom of Serbia as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.




Balkan nations, which gained independence from Ottoman Empire


5. Tourism in Montenegro 

- Tourism is one of the main industries in Montenegro 
- Montenegro was a famous tourist spot in the 1980s, but the Yugoslav wars between 1991-2001 crippled Montenegro's tourism for a long time
- The tourism industry began to recover in the 2000s
- The coast region of Montenegro is considered as one of the new "discoveries" among tourists in the world currently
- In 2009 Yahoo Travel described Montenegro as the second fastest growing tourism market in the world, falling behind only China

List of some attractive locations: 

- Ada Bojana
- Buljarica
- Jaz Beach
- Porto Montenegro
- Velika Plaža 


Bay of Kotor

Timeline

The Illyrians were the first inhabitants of the region 
400BC Maritime Greeks established some coastal colonies on the sites of some Illyrian settlements
168BC The Romans defeated the last Illyrian King Gentius
100BC Rome fully absorbed the Balkans into their provinces
395 Roman Empire was split into two, modern Montenegro lied on the dividing line of Rome and the Byzantine Empire 
537 Emperor Justinian re-established Byzantine control of the Balkans and brought Christianity
625 Formation of Duklja as a vassal state of Byzantine Empire 
1042 Duklja gained independence from the Byzantine Empire at Battle of Bar
1077 Kingdom of Zeta recognition 
1186 Stefan Nemanja conquered the region and incorporated it into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta 
1356 Independent dukedom was established
1421 Zeta was annexed to the Serbian Despotate 
1455 The Crnojević  family became sovereign rulers of the country 
1496 The Ottomans conquered the region 
1512-1528 Montenegro was an autonomous sanjak in the Ottoman Empire 
1516 Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro was established 
1683-1699 Great Turkish War, The Ottoman Empire lost in the war against many European powers
1852 Proclamation of principality 
1878 After the War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman Empire had to recognize the independence of Montenegro at Treaty of Berlin 
1910 The Kingdom of Montenegro was proclaimed 
1918 The Podgorica Assembly voted to unite the country with the Kingdom of Serbia
1919 Christmas Uprising in January when the "Greens" rebelled against the decision to unite with the Kingdom of Serbia, but they lost against the pro-unification "Whites"
1941 Italian forces occupied Montenegro and established it as a puppet Kingdom of Montenegro 
1944 The Yugoslav Partisans liberated Montenegro 
1945 Montenegro became one of the six constituent republics of the SFR Yugoslavia 
1992 Dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia, Montenegro remained part of a smaller Federal Republic of Yugoslavia along with Serbia 
2003 Serbia and Montenegro was established, a state union which was less decentralized than the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 
2006 Montenegro became independent after the referendum  
2011 The Royal House of Montenegro was rehabilitated and recognized limited symbolic roles within the constitutional framework of the republic 
2016 A coup was attempted by 20 people, which was prevented 

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