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perjantai 3. maaliskuuta 2017

Serbia, Cool Facts #169

<= 168. Croatia                                                                                                            170. Slovenia => 

There are many stories explaining why the Serbian flag has the opposite colors of the Russian flag. One story says that Serb nationalists visiting Russia in the early 1800s attended a Pan-Slavistic parade, but they didn't have a flag. In the end they turned the Russian flag upside down and got a flag. 

This tricolor flag was officially adopted in 1835 and used until 1918, when Serbia joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which later evolved into Yugoslavia. 

There are four C-letters in the coat-of-arms, which stands for "Samo sloga Srbina spasava", meaning that "Only Unity Saves the Serbs".

Serbian flag timeline

2. Medieval Serbia

From Principality to a Kingdom
The medieval Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1217 by Stefan the First-Crowned, when the Grand Principality of Serbia became a kingdom. The Grand Principality had been established in 1091.

Coronation of Stefan

Peak of the Serbian Kingdom
The kingdom reached its peak during the rule of Stefan Dušan, who took advantage of the Byzantine civil war (1341-1347). At the expense of Byzantium he doubled the size of the state by conquering territories to the south and east. 

Serbian Kingdom in 1355

From Kingdom to an Empire
In 1346 the Serbian Kingdom became the Serbian Empire, which was established by King Stefan Dušan "the Mighty". He expanded his state to cover half of the Balkans, which was more territory than either the Byzantine Empire or the Second Bulgarian Empire. On 16 April 1346, Stefan Dušan crowned himself the "Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks", a title signifying a claim to the succession of the Byzantine Empire. 

End of the Empire
The son of Stefan Dušan, Uroš the Weak, lost most of the the territory that his father had conquered. In 1371 the Serbian Empire effectively ended with the death of Stefan V and the break-up of the Serbian state. Later the area came under Ottoman rule, which lasted over 400 years. 

Serbian Empire

What ? 
The term refers to mainly two large Serb migrations from the Ottoman Empire to the Habsburg Monarchy.

Serbians crossing the river for Austrian territory

First Serbian Migration
In 1690 a lot of Serbs migrated from the Ottoman areas to the Habsburg Monarchy as Emperor Leopold I allowed the refugees gathered on the banks of the Sava and Danube in Belgrade to cross the rivers and settle in the Habsburg Monarchy. This happened during the Austro-Turkish war (1683-1699). One of the reasons for the migration was the bad relations between Christians and Muslims in European provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Muslim leaders started persecuting local Christians and Jews, which resulted into the migration of 1690.

Great Serbian migration in 1690 map

Second Serbian Migration
The second migration happened in 1739 after the fall of the Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia (1718-1739) to the Ottoman Empire. The Second Migration was smaller than the first one.

Serbian migration painting

4. Balkan Wars 1912-1913

What ?
Consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula. 

Balkan before the First Balkan War

First Balkan War 1912-1913: 
Four Balkan states (Montenegro, Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria) defeated the Ottoman Empire. 

Second Balkan War 1913: Bulgaria wasn't satisfied with its shares of the spoils of the First Balkan War so it attacked its own former allies Serbia and Greece. Serbian and Greek armies counter-attacked and entered Bulgaria. The war provoked also Romania to attack Bulgaria, because these two countries had territorial disputes previously. The Ottoman Empire took also advantage of the situation to regain some lost territories from the First Balkan War. The war ended when Bulgaria asked for armistice. 

Treaty of Bucharest: Bulgaria had to cede portions of its First Balkan War gains to Serbia, Greece and Romania
Treaty of Constantinople: Bulgaria lost Edirne to the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire lost nearly all of its European territories during the Balkan wars. Only a small part remained in the European continent under Ottoman control. 

Balkans after the Second Balkan War, 1913

5. Different phases of Yugoslavia  

Saying of Yugoslavia: 

According to the old saying Yugoslavia was a country, which had:
6 republics
5 languages
4 ethnic groups
3 religions
2 writing systems and
1 political party 

Three phases of Yugoslavia during its history: 

Kingdom of Yugoslavia: Yugoslavia between the two World Wars I. 

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Socialist Yugoslavia after World War II until the disintegration of the federation in 1990s.

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: the remnant state between 1992-2006, consisting of Serbia and Montenegro after all the other republics had left the federation. The areas of Kosovo and Vojvodina were also part of this state. 

Socialism in YugoslaviaYugoslavia had their own socialistic model, which didn't have centralized planning and collectivization of farms like other Socialist countries. Yugoslavia's economy was more competitive than in other Socialist country and the living standards were also higher. Yugoslavia highlighted neutrality in its foreign policy and it was also the founder member of the Non-Aligned Movement. 

Map of Yugoslavia at the time of its dissolution


167BC Roman Province of Illyricum was established
75BC Roman Province of Moesia Superior was established in the territory
106 Rome conquered Bačka and Banat after the Dacian wars
395 Serbia remained under the Eastern Roman Empire, when the Roman Empire was divided
500-600 Slavs migrated to the Balkan territory
822 Serbs inhabited the greater part of Dalmatia
870 Christianity was adopted as the state religion
1091 The Serbian Grand Principality was established by the Vukanović dynasty
1166 Stefan Nemanja assumed the throne, marking the beginning of a prospering Serbia
1217 The Serbian Kingdom was established by Stefan the First-Crowned
1331 Stefan Dušan became the Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks, he was one of the most powerful monarchs of the area and he conquered a large part of southeast Europe 
1371 The end of the Serbian Empire 
1389 The Battle of Kosovo Pole against the Ottomans meant that the country would be under Ottoman rule for the following 400 years 
1402-1459 Serbian Despotate, a successor of the Serbian Empire, was ruled by the magnate families Lazarevič and Brankovič 
1459 Serbian Despotate was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, which had conquered the entire central Serbia
1521 Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, which opened the way for Ottoman expansion into Central Europe
1557 The Serbian Patriarchate was re-established by the Ottoman Empire to provide limited continuation of Serbian traditions within the empire
1593-1606 Long Turkish War, an indecisive land war between the Ottoman Empire and Habsburg Monarchy
1718-1739 The Habsburg Empire occupied central Serbia establishing the Kingdom of Serbia, which was a province of the Habsburg Empire
1766 The Serbian Patriarchate was abolished again by the Ottoman Empire (first time in 1463)
1788-1792 Central Serbia is occupied by Habsburg Empire again
1804-1815 Serbian Revolution for independence from the Ottoman Empire
1817 Creation of the Principality of Serbia, as it gained semi-independence from the Ottoman Empire  (formally in 1829)
1835 The First Serbian constitution was adopted
1848 Revolution in Austria led to the establishment of the autonomous territory of Serbian Vojvodina
1867 Under pressure from the Great Powers, the last Turkish left the Principality, making the country de facto independent
1878 In the Treaty of Berlin, the de jure recognition of the independence of Serbia, Romania and Montenegro
1882 Serbia became a kingdom ruled by King Milan I
1903 May Coup, the royal couple was assassinated, thus the throne passing from the House of Obrenović to the Karađorđević family 
1912 The Balkan League defeated the Ottoman Empire and captured its European territories
1913 Second Balkan War after Bulgaria turned on its former allies, but was defeated
1914 Gavrilo Princip assassinated Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand after which Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, which resulted Serbia's ally Russia to mobilize its troops and after that Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declared war on Russia
1918 Serbia and Montenegro united in November
1918 In December the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes under King Peter I of Serbia was proclaimed
1921 King Peter was succeeded by his son Alexander, who changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia in 1929 and whose dictatorship alienated the non-Serbs from the idea of unity
1929 The kingdom was renamed as Kingdom of Yugoslavia
1934 King Alexander was assassinated in Marseille by Croat nationalists, so his 11-year-old son Peter II succeeded him to the throne
1939 Autonomous banate of Croatia was established as a solution to the Croatian concerns
1941 In spite of Yugoslav attempts to remain neutral in the war, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis Powers
1943 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance and in 1944 the king recognized it as the legitimate government
1945 The monarchy was abolished
1946 Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
1951 Yugoslavia made an agreement with USA about military aid 
1980 President Josip Broz Tito died
1981 Unrests in Kosovo started and they were crushed with force 
1989 Slobodan Milošević became the president of Yugoslavia 
1991-1992 Breakup of Yugoslavia as Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Kosovo declared independence while Serbia and Montenegro remained together as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1995 Serbs were expelled from the Krajina region in Croatia
1996 Large protests against the government, when the Socialist Party of Serbia refused to accept its defeat in municipal elections
1998-1999 Kosovo War, which ended when Nato forces bombed Belgrad and the Serbian army retreated from Kosovo 
2002 Yugoslavia was renamed Serbia and Montenegro
2006 Montenegro became independent after a referendum about the union with Serbia
2008 Kosovo declared independence, which Serbia condemned and has denied the statehood of Kosovo until this day (2017) 

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