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perjantai 9. syyskuuta 2016

Philippines, Cool Facts #132

<= 131. Sri Lanka                                                                                 133. Antigua and Barbuda =>

1. Origin of the country's name

The Philippines is named after the Spanish King Philip II. The Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the islands of Leyte and Samar as Felipinas after the king, who was then still the Prince of Asturias. Later the name Las Islas Filipinas was used of all the islands of the archipelago. 

Other names: 

Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West): used by the Spanish 
San Lázaro: Ferdinand Magellan's name of the islands 

King Philip II of Spain

2. Ring of Fire 

Philippines lies on Ring of Fire, which is a horseshoe shaped area in the Pacific. It's the place where tectonic plates collide to each others and that's why more than 75% of the world's volcanoes are situated on the Ring of Fire. 

The 7641 islands of Philippines were born as a result of volcanic eruptions. Due to the situation of Philippines, it's prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The location along the Ring of Fire has also made Philippines a country with some of the world's greatest biodiversity. 

Ring of Fire facts: 

- About 90% of the world's earthquakes occur along it
- About 75% of the world's volcanoes are situated along the Ring of Fire
- 22 of the 25 largest volcanic eruptions of the last 11,700 years have occurred at the volcanoes in the Ring of Fire

Ring of Fire
Tectonic plates

3. Spanish influence

The Spanish influence in Philippines can still be seen in their culture and society. The Spanish started colonizing Philippines after 1521, when Ferdinand Magellan arrived in Homonhon, Eastern Samar. The Philippines was part of the Spanish Empire for over 300 years. The Spanish rule ended in 1898, when Spain lost the war against USA and ceded the islands to USA and got 20 million US dollars as compensation.

Signs of the Spanish influence in Philippines: 

- Resembles Latin America as the majority of the population are Catholics
- The only country with East Timor in Asia where the majority of the population are Christians
- The symbol on the flag, the sun with the face is popular among the national symbols of Spain's former colonies like in the flags of Uruguay and Argentina
- Spanish-sounding names
- Thousands of loanwords from Spanish to the local languages like Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, Ilonggo and Bikolano for example
- Roman Catholic holidays and traditions
- Spanish and Asian influence on the cuisine of Philippines

Spanish Empire at its greatest extent in 1790

4. Colonial Era 

Spanish colonial era 1521-1898
1521 Ferdinand Magellan arrived to Philippines as the first European. 
1571 The Spanish conquered the Kingdom of Tondo, which used the fortified city of Manila as their capital. Philippines was ruled as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from Mexico. 
1800s The Spanish conquered most of the Sultanates in Philippines 
1896 Katipunan movement led by Emilio Aguinaldo used the flag, which became a national symbol later. The uprising and establishment of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato failed as the Spanish crushed the resistance by force.

American colonial era 1898-1946 
1898 Spanish-American War, which Spain lost and had to cede all of its remaining colonies. USA got Philippines and paid Spain a compensation of 20 million US dollars.
1899-1902 Philippine-American War after Philippines had became a possession of USA after the Treaty of Paris. Philippines struggled for independence but lost the war against USA.
1899-1913 Moro rebellion against the Americans after they had resisted Spain for centuries.
1934 USA granted Philippines autonomy and the usage of the flag of Philippines was allowed again.

Japanese occupation 1942-1945
1941 The invasion started in December and in 1942 Japan started their three year occupation in Philippines. 

1945 Japan surrendered in the World War II and left Philippines after that. 

Finally in 1946 Philippines became independent. Manuel Roxas became the first president. The Americans were allowed to keep their big military bases on the islands. 

July 4th 1946, Independence of Philippines

5. Aquino & Marcos families 

The Aquino and Marcos families are families with strong political influence in Philippines. The families have been also rivals in politics. 

Aquino and Marcos family members: 

Ferdinand Marcos, president of Philippines 1965-1986 
A dictator who ruled Philippines under martial law between 1972-1981. Started many infrastructure projects but his regime was also infamous for corruption extravagance and brutality.

Benigno Aquino Jr, opposition leader 
Together with Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga formed the opposition leadership against Ferdinand Marcos. Benigno Aquino Jr. was assassinated at the Manila International Airport in 1983.

Corazon Aquino, president of Philippines 1986-1992
Widow of the assassined Benigno Aquino Jr. After 21 years of Ferdinand Marcos' authoritarian rule, Corazon restored democracy to Philippines. She was also the first female president of Philippines. Corazon's regime had a strong emphasis on civil liberties and human rights.

Imelda Marcos, presidential candidate 1992
Dictator Ferdinand Marcos' wife, who was known for her extravagance. The Marcos family was exiled after Corazon Aquino became president. Imelda returned to Philippines after the death of her husband and run for the presidency in 1992. Imelda was 5th out of the 7 presidential candidates.

Benigno Aquino III, president of Philippines 2010-2016 
President Corazon Aquino's and Benigno Aquino Jr's son, who became president of Philippines in 2010. He lived in USA as his family was exiled during the rule of Ferdinand Marcos.

Top 5 places that I want to visit in Philippines: 

1. Chocolate Hills in Bohol
2. Coron Island in Palawan
3. Banaue Rice Terraces
4. Taal Volcano
5. Mount Pinatubo


30,000 Years ago the Philippines was inhabited
5000 Negrito tribes retreated to the inland mountains and jungles of the islands as the Malays started inhabiting the area
900s Chinese merchants started arriving to the area, which belonged to the Srivijaya Empire
1200s The Philippine islands were part of the Majapahiti Hindu Empire
1300s Islam spread to South-East Asia with Arab merchants and the area fragmented into small Sultanates
1457 The Sultanate of Sulu was established
1521 The Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan was the first European in the Philippines
1571 The last king of the Tondo Kingdom surrendered
1887 The last Sultanates are conquered by the Spanish
1897 Katipuna movement with Emilio Aquinaldo arranged an uprising and established the Republic of Biak-na-Bato
1898 After the Spanish-American War USA bought the Philippines from Spain with 20 million dollars
1913 The Philippines rebellion against the Americans was finally suppressed everywhere except in Mindanao
1934 USA granted the Philippines autonomy
1941 Japan started occupying the Philippines and established a puppet government two years later
1946 The Philippines become independent with Manuel Roxas as the first president
1954 The Huk rebels and their movement was suppressed, which attempted to get a land reform
1965 Ferdinand Marcos became president
1983 Opposition leader Benign Aquino was murdered
1986 Benigno's wife Corazon Aquino was elected president
1989 The autonomic Muslim area of Mindanao was established
1992 Fidel Ramos was elected president after winning Imelda Marcos
2001 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo became the second female president in Philippines
2010 Corazon Aquino's son Benigno Aquino III was elected president 

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