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keskiviikko 20. heinäkuuta 2016

Bangladesh, Cool Facts #127

<= 126. Pakistan                                                                                                            128. Bhutan =>


1. Evolution of Bangladesh 

British Colonial Era
1858 Bengal became part of the British India
1905 Bengal was divided into the Muslim-majority East Bengal with Dhaka as the center and the Hindu-majority West Bengal with Calcutta as the center
1911 The partition of Bengal was annulled

Partition of India 
1947 British India became independent from Great Britain, the colony was divided into the Muslim-majority Pakistan and Hindu-majority India. Pakistan consisted of East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and West Pakistan (Pakistan). Bengal was also partitioned according to religious borders. West Bengal joined India and East Bengal joined Pakistan.
1950 Land reform in East Pakistan abolishing the feudal zamindari system

Partition of Pakistan 
1970 A massive cyclone devastated the coast of East Pakistan killing up to half a million people
1970 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his Awami League won a majority in Parliament elections but was blocked from taking office
1971 Bangladesh Liberation War ended in the independence of Bangladesh with the support of Indian troops
1972 The new state of Bangladesh was recognized by 86 countries
1974 Pakistan recognized Bangladesh after pressure from the Muslim world




2. Economy of Bangladesh 

- Largest exporter of jute fiber in the world with a share of 70% of the world's jute exports
- Second biggest jute fiber producer after India
- Jat Area in Bangladesh popular for highest quality of jute fiber
- Agriculture biggest industry comprising 18,6% (2010 data) of the GDP and employing 45% of the total work force
- Textile industry the largest manufacturing sector generating 25 billion dollars in exports (2014 data)

Textile factory in Bangladesh

3. Muhammad Yunus

In 2006 Muhammad Yunus was awarded the Nobel Peace Price for founding the Grameen Bank and for pioneering the concepts of microfinance and microcredit. Grameen Bank gave loans to people who were too poor for traditional banks.

Yunus started his experiments with micro crediting in 1976 and this has led to the current situation where about 5 million people live within the scope of micro crediting. From the densely populated country with a population of 150 million people about 26% live in national poverty line of 2 dollars per day.

The Grameen Bank has grown into over two dozen companies offering different kinds of services. The Grameen Foundation, which was developed to share the Grameen philosophy and to expand the benefits of microfinance for the world's poorest people, works currently in several countries in Asia, Africa and the Americas.

Muhammad Yunus

4. Bengal Delta

- Also known as Ganges Delta or Brahmaputra Delta or Brahmaputra-Ganges Delta- World's largest delta 
- Consists of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal 
- One of the world's most fertile regions 
- Principal seaports of the delta are Kolkata and Haldia in India and Mongla and Chittagong in Bangladesh 
- Between 125 and 143 million people live in the delta 
- The area is constantly struck by monsoon floods, droughts and tropical cyclones 
- The fertile land gives up to three harvests a year 
- Rising sea level caused by climate change is one of the biggest threats to the inhabitants of the delta 



5. Dhaka 

- Capital city of Bangladesh and the largest city also
- The old city of Dhaka was the Mughal capital of Bengal
- Dhaka generated 50% of the Mughal GDP
- Jahangir Nagar (City of Jahangir) was the city's name in the 1600s
- Dhaka became known as the City of Mosques in Bengal after the Mughals decorated the city with gardens, tombs, palaces, forts and mosques
- It was also described as the Venice of the East
- During medieval times Dhaka was regarded as one of the world's wealthiest cities
- 1905-1912 capital of British Eastern Bengal and Assam
- 1962 Dhaka became the legislative capital of Pakistan
- 1971 Dhaka became the capital of the independent Bangladesh
- Rickshaw capital of the world, has the largest number of cycle rickshaws




Timeline

1000 BC Vanga or Banga Kingdom ruled in the area, which gave the country the name
300 BC Part of Buddhist Maurya Dynasty
300 Gupta kings from northern India made Hinduism more popular
750 The Bengals established the short-living Shashanka Principality after which the Buddhist Palas Dynasty ruled the area for the following 400 years
1000s Islam started spreading to Bangladesh
1200s Delhi Sultanate started ruling the area
1338 The Hindu Bengal became independent again
1500s Mughal ruler Akbar conquered Bengal and annexed it to his Islamic Mughal Empire, Dhaka became the local center of the Mughal administration
1600s The British sailed to India and became interested in Bengal
1765 The British East India Company took Bengal under its surveillance and started taxing the trade
1858 Bengal became part of the British colony of British Raj after the British had suppressed the Sepoy mutiny and transferred the power to rule from the East India Company to the British government
1905 Bengal was divided into the Muslim-majority East Bengal with Dhaka as the center and Hindu-majority West Bengal with Calcutta as the center
1906 Muslims in Dhaka established the All-India Muslim League party with the goal to establish an independent Muslim state in India
1940s Muslims and Hindus have violent clashes with each others during the World War II
1943 A severe famine kills 3 million people
1947 British India becomes independent as two separate countries, Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India. Bengal was also divided according to religious borders, the western part joined India and the eastern part of Bengal was part of Pakistan as East Pakistan
1950 Land reform
1966 Mujibur Rahman was jailed
1970 Awami League win the majority of the parliamentary seats
1971 Mujibur Rahman declared East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh, West Pakistan's Yahya Khan didn't accept this starting the civil war, which Bangladesh won with the help of Indian troops
1975 First president Mujibur Rahman was murdered during a military coup, successor general Ziaur Rahman changed the constitution making Bangladesh an Islamic state
1981 Army officers murdered Ziaur Rahman and general Hussain Ershad got the power
1990 Ershad had to resign after an uprising
1991 First free parliamentary elections, which were won by BNP
1996 Awami League won the elections and Mujibur Rahman's daughter Hasina Wazed became the Prime Minister
2005 Extremist Islamic parties were prohibited in Bangladesh

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