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torstai 23. kesäkuuta 2016

Zambia, Cool Facts #121

<= 120. Uganda                                                                                                        122. Zimbabwe =>



1. Zambia's Name

Between 1911-1964 the country was called Northern Rhodesia. The neighboring Zimbabwe was called Southern Rhodesia. The name Rhodesia was derived from Cecil Rhodes, a British politician, businessman and mining magnate.

The country changed its name to Zambia, when it became independent from Great Britain in 1964. The name Zambia comes from Zambezi River, fourth-longest river in Africa. Zambezi may mean "River of God". The Zambezi has amazing falls like Victoria Falls and also Chavuma Falls and Ngonye Falls.

Zambezi River
2. David Livingstone at Victoria Falls

In 1855 the Scottish explorer David Livingstone was probably the first European to see the Victoria Falls, which he named after Queen Victoria of Britain. The indigenous name "Mosi-oa-Tunya"- "the smoke that thunders" is still used commonly.

Victoria Falls is not the highest nor widest waterfall in the world, but it's still largest based on its combined height and width.

Highest Waterfalls

1. Angel Falls, Venezuela - 979m
2. Tugela Falls, South Africa - 948m
3. Tres Hermanas Falls, Peru - 914m

Victoria Falls - 108m

Widest Waterfalls

1. Khone Phapheng Falls, Laos - 10,783m

Victoria Falls - 1708m

Victoria Falls

3. Formation of Southern Rhodesia

The British businessman and politician Cecil Rhodes created the British South Africa Company, which had the goal of promoting colonization and exploiting south-central Africa as part of the "Scramble for Africa".

In 1890 Cecil Rhodes made an agreement with the King of Barotseland. The BSAC was allowed to use the land and exploit the minerals in response for giving the Lozi people of Barotseland protection against other tribes.

This area was called Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and it was administered by the BSAC between 1891-1911. The British established the protectorate of North-Eastern Rhodesia in 1900 and in 1911 it was merged with Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia to form the Northern Rhodesia protectorate, administered by the BSAC until 1924, when the British government took over the administration of the protectorate.

The BSAC had mining rights until Zambia's independence in 1964, when it handed the rights to the Zambian government. The BSAC also built the railway system, which they owned until 1947.

Important dates of the Rhodesian protectorates

1891-1911 Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia
1900-1911 North-Eastern Rhodesia
1911-1953 Northern Rhodesia

Cecil Rhodes

Old map of southern part of Africa


In 1953 the British merged Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland to form a semi-independent federation. Southern Rhodesia was then a self-governing British colony as Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland were British protectorates. 

Southern Rhodesia had the biggest European population of the three states and it was the dominant power in the federation. Northern Rhodesia's abundant copper deposits were one of the central motives to bring the three territories under one constitution. 

The highly unpopular federation, where a couple of hundred thousand European, primarily from Southern Rhodesia, ruled over millions of Africans, came to an end in 1963. The Africans resisted the federation, which was dissolved in December, 1963. 

Important dates 

1953-1963 Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 
1964 Northern Rhodesia become independent as Zambia
1964 Nyasaland become independent as Malawi 
1965-1979 Southern Rhodesia was the unrecognized state of Rhodesia 
1979 Rhodesia as unrecognized state Zimbabwe Rhodesia
1980 Zimbabwe Rhodesia became the recognized and independent state of Zimbabwe


Federation of Nyasaland and Rhodesia


5. Copper deposits

Zambia is the world's 8th biggest copper producer. Copper and other natural resources were the reason why Cecil Rhodes and his company arrived at the present-day Zambian area in the late 1800s. Zambian copper deposits were also something that the Rhodesian leaders wanted when Zambia was in the federation with Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia) and Malawi (Nyasaland).

Zambia is highly dependent on copper, which constitutes the overwhelming majority of its exports. The government is trying to diversify its economy by promoting tourism, agriculture, gem stone mining and hydro-power. In 2009 Zambia was badly hit by the economic crisis. It's hoped that nickel will be the leading metallic export in the country.

Despite its huge natural reserves Zambia remains a very poor country.

Nkana mine in Zambia

Zambia export statistics

Timeline

300s Bantu people started settling to the area inhabited by the Khoisan people
1100s Major waves of Bantu-speaking arrived during the Bantu expansion. The Bantu people established kingdoms in the following centuries before the arrival of the Europeans
1700s In the end of the century Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda led an expedition from Portuguese Mozambique to Portuguese Angola arriving to present-day Zambia, which was between these two territories
1855 David Livingstone was the first European to see the Zambezi River and their waterfalls naming them Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria
1873 Livingstone died but his journeys motivated a wave of European visitors
1888 The British South Africa Company, led by Cecil Rhodes, obtained mineral rights from Litunga, the paramount chief of the Lozi for the future Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia area
1899 Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia established
1900 North-Eastern Rhodesia established
1911 North-Eastern Rhodesia and Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia merged to form Northern Rhodesia, a British Protectorate
1923 The BSA Company ceded control over Northern Rhodesia to the British Government
1953 Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Nyasaland (Malawi) merged to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
1963 The federation, which was controlled by Zimbabwe, was dissolved
1964 UNIP's leader Kenneth Kaunda became Zambia's first president
1975 Uhuru railway constructions completed to Tanzania with China's support
1972 UNIP was declared as the only legal party
1989 The price collapse of copper and the increased price of food caused protests and demands of multi-party system 
1991 President Kaunda agreed to reinstate multiparty democracy, UNIP lost the elections to MMP and its leader Frederick Chiluba became the president 
1996 Kaunda was prohibited to participate in the presidential elections, which the opposition boycotted and which Chiluba won
2001 Chiluba lost the elections and Lewy Mwanawasa became the president
2011 Michael Sata from the Patriotic Front became the president 

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