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keskiviikko 13. tammikuuta 2016

Armenia, Cool Facts #90

<= 89. Turkmenistan                                                                                                91. Azerbaijan =>




1. Yerevan 782 BC 

Yerevan is the world's oldest city to have documented the exact date of its foundation. It was founded 782 years BC, which is a really long time ago. Yerevan is also one of the oldest continuously inhabited city.

King Argishti I of the ancient kingdom of Urartu ordered first the construction of the Erebuni fortress, guarding against the attacks from the north Caucasus. In the following centuries Yerevan was part of different Persian, Turkish and Russian Empires before Armenia got independence and made Yerevan its capital city.


Erebuni fortress

2. First Christian Nation

Armenia is the world's first nation to have adopted Christianity as its official religion. The official date of this event is in the year 301. It was Tiridates The Great, the king of Kingdom of Armenia, who proclaimed Christianity as the state religion of Armenia. Before this Armenia had been predominantly a Zoroastrian country. Christianity had although spread into Armenia already as early as the year 40. 


Khor Virap monastery in Armenia

3. Armenian Genocide 

Armenians had been killed in the Ottoman Empire even before the genocide, which began in 1915. Between 1894-1896 the Sultan of Ottoman Empire, Abdu'l-Hamid II, organized massacres against Armenians killing between 80.000-300.000 Armenians. 

In 1909 after the Young Turk Revolution about 20.000-30.000 Armenians were killed in the Adana massacre. 

The Armenian genocide started in 1915, when 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals were arrested and then killed by the Ottoman government. After that Armenians were started being deported after the Tehcir Law. Armenian property was confiscated and a lot of people were marched into the Syrian desert, where they starved to death. 

Rape was also an integral part of the genocide as the Ottoman commanders could do whatever they wanted to the women. About 25 concentration camps were established for those who survived the deportations. It's estimated that from 800.000 to 1.5 million Armenians were killed during the genocide. 
Armenian Genocide


4. Armenian Diaspora

The modern Armenian diaspora was largely a result of the Armenian genocide by the Ottoman government. Armenians had although established communities in different parts of the world already since antiquity. The earthquake of 1988 and the dissolution of Soviet Union in 1991 made many Armenians to move abroad also.

As a result of these events Armenia is one of the few countries, which has more Armenians living abroad than in their home country. There are 3 million people living in Armenia and about 7-11 million Armenians living abroad around the world.




5. Transcaucasia

The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 gave Armenia the chance to gain independence as the situation in Russia was chaotic, when Imperial forces fought against the Bolsheviks. In 1918 Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan united as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic lasting only from February to May. 

Then Armenia declared independence in 1918, but in 1920 Turkey invaded Armenia and took back the lands that Armenia had got in the Treaty of Sevres. In 1920 the First Republic of Armenia fell and Soviet army entered Yerevan. 

In 1922 Armenia together with Azerbaijan and Georgia was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Transcaucasian SFSR. In 1936 the Transcaucasian SFSR was divided into three separate entities, Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR and Georgian SSR. 

Transcaucasia

Timeline

782 BC The capital city Yerevan is founded
190 BC The Armenians declare themselves independent from Persian Seleucids with the lead of Prince Artaxee
95-55 BC Armenian Kingdom at its largest during the rule of Tigranes the Great
30 BC The Romans conquer the Armenian Kingdom
653 Arabs spreading Islam establish an Emirate in Armenia
884 The Bagratuni dynasty re-established the Kingdom of Armenia
1045 The kingdom fragments after internal power struggles
1198 The Kingdom of Cilicia is established
1230s The Mongols conquer Armenian areas and the Armenias move to the southwards
1342 The Lusignania Dynasty starts ruling Armenia
1375 The Armenian Kingdom is defeated y the Turkish Mamluks
1500s Ottoman Turkey and Safavid Persia divided Armenia
1828 Qajar Iran was forced to cede Eastern Armenia to Imperial Russia as Western Armenia remained a part of Ottoman Turkey
1894-96 First wave of mass executions in Armenian provinces in the Ottoman Empire
1914-1916 The Armenian genocide executed by Turkey
1916 Russia conquers Turkey's part of Armenia
1917 After the Russian Revolution Turkey invaded Russian Armenia
1917 Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan establish together the independent Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
1918 The First Republic of Armenia established as the Transcaucasian union fragmented
1920 Soviet Union and Turkey agree about dividing the country as Kemal Atatürk occupied the former Turkish Armenia including the Mount Ararat, which is holy to the Armenians
1922-1936 Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan become the Transcaucasian Soviet Republic
1936 The Transcaucausian Soviet Republic is divided into three separate Soviet states
1988 A severe earthquake hits Armenia killing about 25,000 people
1991 Armenia declares independence from the Soviet Union 
1992-1994 A war, in which 30.000 people died as Armenia occupied Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. As a result of these events Azerbaijan closed its border with Armenia and later Turkey joined the blockade crippling Armenian economy
1998 President Levon Ter-Petrosjan is forced to resign
1999 An attack to the parliament, where 8 politicians were shot including the prime minister and the president of the parliament 

Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Genocide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcaucasian_Socialist_Federative_Soviet_Republic
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Sèvres
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yerevan

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