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sunnuntai 29. marraskuuta 2015

Monaco, Cool Facts #82

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1. House of Grimaldi 

The Grimaldi family is originally from Genova, Italy. Monaco was a colony of Genova after 1215 and in 1297 Francesco Grimaldi captured the fortress in Monaco dressed as Franciscan monks. A few years afterwards Francesco was evicted from Monaco by the Genoese troops but the Grimaldi family continued fighting over Monaco the next century. In 1419 the Crown of Aragon sold Monaco to the Grimaldi family, who became the official and undisputed rulers of Monaco. 

House of Grimaldi history in Monaco: 

1297 Francesco Grimaldi captures the fortress of Monaco 
1419 Grimaldi family purchases Monaco from the Crown of Aragon
1642-1793 Monaco is a sovereign French protectorate
1793-1814 French revolutionary forces ruled Monaco
1814-1860 Monaco is a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia
1860 Treaty of Turin, Sardinian forces pull out and Nice and Savoy are annexed to France, Monaco was a French protectorate again
1861 Franco-Monegasque Treaty, Monaco becomes independent
1911 The constitution of Monaco was adopted


Grimaldi family coat of arms
Prince's Palace of Monaco

2. Agreement of 2002 with France 

Before the year 2002 there was an agreement between Monaco and France that, should the Grimaldi dynasty have no male heirs, Monaco would be annexed to France. The new agreement in 2002 declared that in this case Monaco would still remain independent and also that a female could be eligible to be a heir. 



3. Monte Carlo Casino 

The Grimaldi family had huge debts and was in financial troubles after 1848 when the towns of Menton and Roquebrune declared independence from Monaco and stopped paying taxes to the Grimaldi family. It was the idea of Princess Caroline, wife of Prince Florestan I, to build a casino to get money. The construction of the casino begun in 1858 and was completed in 1863. 

Hotels, harbors and beaches were constructed around the casino and the railway connected Monaco to Nice. The casino transformed Monaco from one of the poorest corners in the French Riviera to the wealthiest in the following decades. The casino was so successful that the Grimaldi family stopped collecting income tax from its residents in 1869. Since then Monaco started attracting more and more rich people to live and travel in Monaco. 


1892 Monte Carlo Casino


4. World's Highest Life Expectancy

Monaco has the world's highest life expectancy of 90 years. That means that the average Monegasque is expected to live 90 years at birth. The reason for this is the small population of only under 40,000 people. Out of the population only 22% are native Monegasque people, the rest are from France, Italy and other countries. Millionaires constitute 30% of the population and so the whole population is very wealthy which is a big factor for the longevity of the people in Monaco.

2012 Life expectancy chart

5. Monaco & Indonesia 

Monaco had a dispute with Indonesia in 1945 when Indonesia inaugurated their flag, which looked entirely the same as the Monacan flag. The proportions are the only thing that differentiates these two flags as Monaco has 4:5 and Indonesia 2:3 flag height and width proportions. Monaco was particularly upset because they claimed their flag colors to stem from the Middle Ages and the shape from the year 1881.


Monaco Pictures 








Timeline

1192 Genova got Monaco from the Holy Roman Empire and built a fortress there
1297 The Italian Grimaldi family fled from Genova to Monaco as a result of internal disputes
1419 The Grimaldi family buys Monaco from the Crown of Aragon and becomes the undisputed ruler of Monaco
1612 Honoré II was the first to claim as the Prince of Monaco
1793 Revolutionary forces of France captured Monaco
1814 The Grimaldi family returned back into the throne and it became a protectorate of Sardinia
1848 France separates Monaco's eastern areas Roquebrune and Menton, which had rebelled against the Prince
1860 Treaty of Turin, the Sardinian forces pull out and the surrounding county of Nice and Savoy are ceded to France
1861 After the Franco-Monegasque Treaty Monaco got independence
1865 France and Monaco conclude a customs union
1881 The red and white flag becomes official flag without the coat of arms
1911 since this year Monaco has been a constitutional monarchy
1929 The first Monaco Grand Prix automobile competition is organized
1949 Prince Rainier III started his reign
2005 Prince Albert II becomes the Prince as his father dies  

Sources:
"Maailman maat liput ja historia" by Kimmo Kiljunen
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monaco

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