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maanantai 10. elokuuta 2015

Qatar, Cool Facts #58

<= 57. Oman                                                                                                             59. Djibouti =>



1. Al-Thani Family 

The Al-Thani family has been in power since 1868 when the Qatari-Bahraini War ended. That war ended Bahrain's Al-Khalifa family's control in Qatar, against which the Qatari had fought for a long time. The Al-Thani family regards the oil deposits as their personal income although they have used the profits to develop the whole country. Three times the leadership has been transitioned forcefully but the power has remained in the Al-Thani family, all these forced abdications were forced by a son or nephew. The current leader Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani has been in power since 2013.

1949 Ali Al-Thani seizes power from his uncle
1960 Ahmad Al-Thani seizes power from his father
1995 Hamad Al-Thani seizes power from his father

Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani

2. World's Richest Country 

Qatar is the world's richest country per capita. Their wealth comes from the vast oil deposits. Oil was discovered in Qatar in 1940, in Dukhan Field. Qatar has huge natural gas and oil deposits, their oil deposits will last at least the next 40 years. Qatar has diversified their economy by developing the banking, financial and other industries.

Effects of the oil profits: 

High standard of living
Free healthcare, education and social services but only for native Qataris
Native Qataris are provided with free apartments
No income taxes
Low gross taxes
Unemployment rate in 6/2013 was 0,1%
None of the 2 million residents live below poverty level



3. Pearl hunting 

Before Qatar experienced a rapid development thanks to the oil profits it was a poor country which got income from fishing and pearl hunting. Qatar was a remote corner in the Arabian Peninsula with few inhabitants who were fishers, pearl hunters and nomads who herded camels. The pearl markets shrunk when the Japanese introduced the cultured pearl in the 1920s.

A report by the Ottoman Empire states that Qatar's total income from pearls in 1892 was 2,45 million kran.


Pearl diving

4. Qataris and immigrants 

About 20% of the 2 million strong population are native Qataris, the rest are migrant workers from other Arab countries, Iran, Southern Asia and the Philippines. The immigrants constitute 90% of the work-force. These immigrants are treated really badly while they have really few rights to fight against the unjust acts. They aren't always paid in time, their passports are confiscated and they might experience beatings and sexual assault. The expatriate workers don't get Qatari citizenship nor can they bring their family with them.



5. Qatari Law

Qatar's legislation is mainly based on sharia law. Here are some facts about law in Qatar:


- A female's testimony is worth half a man's, in some cases female witness is not accepted at all
- Flogging is used as a punishment for alcohol consumption or illegal sexual relations
- Punishment for adultery is 100 lashes
- Adultery punishable by death if a Muslim woman and a non-Muslim man are involved
- Stoning is a legal punishment
- Apostasy is a crime punishable by the death penalty. So if you abandon Islam you have committed apostasy
- Blasphemy is punishable up to 7 years in prison (mocking or ridiculing the principles of a religion)
- Proselytizing can be punished up to 10 years in prison (converting people from one religion to another)
- Muslims who consume alcohol are liable to flogging or expulsion from the country

Countries which use still stoning as punishment

Countries which consider blasphemy as a crime
Where converting people from Islam is illegal


Timeline

600s Islam spreads to the area
1253 The Usfurids control much of Eastern Arabia
1320 The prince of Ormus seizes the control
1515 Kingdom of Ormus visualized by Portugal 
1550 The inhabitants of Al-Hasa voluntarily submitted to the rule of the Ottomans, preferring them to the Portuguese
1670 The Ottomans were expelled by the Bani Khalid tribe
1800s Qatar belongs to the Al-Khalifa dynasty
1867 Qatari people rise to demand for their rights with Mohammed bin Thani's lead
1867-1868 Qatari-Bahraini War, The Al-Thani family has ruled Qatar since the end of this war 
1871 The Ottomans conquer Qatar and keep it until the WW I 
1916 As the Ottoman Empire fell, Qatar becomes an Al-Thani led British protectorate 
1930s Oil findings in Qatar
1932 Qatar gets a flag which distinguishes it from Dubai, Ajman and Bahrain 
1949 Sheikh Ali al-Thani is crowned 
1968 Qatar and Bahrain join a federation with 7 Emirates 
1971 Qatar resigned the federation which was to become the current United Arab Emirates 
1972 Khalifa al-Thani seizes power in a palace coup taking power from his cousin Ahmed al-Thani
1974 Qatar General Petroleum Company takes control of all oil production 
1995 Emir Hamad al-Thani seizes control from his father Ahmed al-Thani with the support of the armed forces and neighboring countries

Sources
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar
Maailman maat liput ja historia by Kimmo Kiljunen

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