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sunnuntai 15. maaliskuuta 2015

Mexico, Cool Facts #20

19. Spain <=                                                                                                     => 21. Equatorial Guinea 


1. Conquistadors destroying the Aztec Empire

The most classical conquistador story ever ! The year was 1519 and the Spanish conquistadors arrived at Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. The leader of the Aztecs, Montezuma, thought that the conquistador leader Hernan Cortes was the mythical god Quetzalcoatl, whose return to the Aztecs was profecized already in their mythology. It wasn't quite what the Aztecs expected, after 1521 the Spanish started killing them and forcing them into labour. Many Aztecs died into diseases that they didn't have any immunity against. 


Tenochtitlan


2. Mexico and Spain 

The Spanish conquistadors established their capital on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. The city was named Mexico according to the Mexica-tribe. Their whole colony was called New Spain. After 300 years of Spanish rule, Mexico got independence in 1821. It was decided that the new independent country would use the name of its capital, thus it was named Mexico.



3. Giant Mexico 

Mexico extended from Oregon to Panama when it got independence from Spain in 1821. Mexico was a huge state for a while. After two years it lost a big chunk of land when Central America became independent in 1823. Then Mexico lost the current areas of California, Arizona, Texas, Utah and Nevada to USA in the war between 1846-48. That was a huge loss for Mexico. In addition Yucatan, the area in southern Mexico was independent in few occasions, first in 1821 and then in 1841-1848.

Mexico in 1821


4. Mexico's Austrian Emperor

Attention: If you think it's Arnold Schwarzennegger who went back in time as the Terminator and ruled Mexico I have to say it's not correct, I'm telling you the real story now.

The Reform War began in 1858 and it ended to the victory of the liberals in 1861. Benito Juarez Garcia was the new president with a Zapotec heritage. He interrupted paying foreign loans and as a result the troops of France, Spain and England attacked and occupied the capital. The conservatives who lost the civil war declare Mexico as a monarchy.  Second Mexican Empire was established and surprisingly the Archduke Ferdinand Maximillian of Austria was crowned as, Maximiliano I, the Emperor of Mexico in 1864. His supporters the Roman Catholic clergy and the conservatives switched sides and joined the liberals. Maximiliano I surrendered in 1867 and he was executed.



5. Huge Economic Power 

Mexico is among the top 5 biggest producers of silver in the world and it's a huge oil producer. The discovery of oil deposits in the 70s made Mexico a big oil exporter. With its huge 120 million population Mexico is the biggest economy in latin america after Brazil and Goldman Sachs estimated that it will be the 5th biggest economy by 2050. 80% of Mexico's exports are headed to USA.

Gulf of Mexico oil spill


Mexico is famous for

Frida Kahlo - artist 
Burritos and tacos
Chichen Itza and other pyramids
Mariachi music
Sombrero hats

Timeline 

9000 B.C Permanent agriculture 
1200 B.C The Olmecs create a thriving society
250-900 Mayas
1300 The last Indian empire Aztecs
1519 Hernan Cortes kills Aztec leader Montezuma in Tenochtitlan
1535 The Viceroyalty of New Spain is established in Mexico
1540 Silver mines are opened
1810 Uprising by the native people led by the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
1821 Mexico declares independence Agustin de Iturbide as the leader
1822 Iturbide crowns himself an emperor
1823 Iturbide is overthrown and killed, Mexico becomes a republic
1829 Slavery abolished
1846-48 Loses California, Arizona, Texas, Utah and Nevada to USA
1858-61 Civil War
1876 General Porfirio Diaz's 34-year dictatorship begins
1910-17 Revolution against Diaz led by Emiliano Zapata
1934-40 Land reform and nationalization of US oil companies

Sources: 
Maailman liput maat ja historia - Kimmo Kiljunen
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexico

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