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tiistai 17. helmikuuta 2015

Chile, Cool Facts #12

11. Argentina <=                                                                                                      => 13. Puerto Rico 

1. La Araucana

La Araucana is the national epic of Chile. It tells the fight between the Mapuche indians and the Spanish conquistadors. After almost 100 years of fighting in the Arauco War, Spain had to leave the Mapuches an area of 100,000 square meters in 1641. The Mapuche soldiers used blue-white-red ribbons as their symbols and this color combination became the symbol of Chile.

2. The French King of Araucania

Between 1860-62 the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia ruled the southern parts of Chile and Argentina with the frenchman Orelie-Antoine de Tounens as their king. The mapuches probably thought they would get a better treatment if they had an European king. Orelie-Antoine was captured by the Chilean troops and sent to a madhouse in Chile because both Chilean and Argentinean authorities thought he was insane. Between 1869-71 Araucania was established again before Chile ended its autonomy. In 1878 Orelie-Antoine died penniless in France after struggle to get authority over his conquered kingdom.

3. Large Mineral Resources 

Huge copper and sodium nitrate deposits were found in the deserts of northern Chile. It became the world's biggest copper exporter and there lies 25% of the world's known copper deposits. North American companies started taking advantage of the country's natural resources. Sodium nitrate lost its significance when nitrogen was learned to produce artificially in the early 1900s.

Escondida Copper Mine

4. Socialist Salvador Allende

Salvador Allende was the president between 1970-73. He died in a rebellion in 1973. During his presidency he nationalized the banks and copper mines, started a land reform and launched education and health services in the slums. The right-wing opposition resisted the changes and paralyzed the economy. Things got even worse when USA declared an embargo against Chile, this was because USA didn't like socialists. The rebellion broke out and Pinochet took the power in a military coup with the help and approval of USA . Allende died during the rebellion.

5. Dictator Augusto Pinochet

Pinochet was the president from 1974 to 1990. He got support from the USA because they wanted to "eliminate marxism" from all over the world. Lands were returned to the rich landowners, state companies privatized and social services were demolished. The economy grew and it was called the "Miracle of Chile" but the wealth was distributed very unevenly. The military government of Pinochet also banned political parties and trade unions. Tens of thousands of opponents of the military junta were arrested, tortured and killed. In 1998 Pinochet was arrested in England for violations of human rights but due to health issues he had to be left to return to Chile. He died in 2006.


1400 The Inca Empire extends to northern Chile in the end of the century
1530 Spanish conquistadors defeat the incas
1541 Pedro de Valdivia declares the land to Spain, but indians kill Valdivia and his troops
1810 The first autonomous government is established in Santiago (Primerea Junta de Gobierno)
1814 The Junta was defeated and the rebellion was lead by Bernardo O'Higgins, supported by the argentinean Jose de San Martin's army
1817 The war ends
1818 Chile's declaration of independence, O'Higgins the first president. 
1860-62 The native Mapuche tribe establish the kingdom of Araucania
1896-71 Araucania is established again, but Chile ends their autonomy attacking the Mapuches
1879-83 War of the Pacific against Bolivia and Peru, conquered Antofagasta from Bolivia
1924-32 Military government
1970 Salvador Allende, left-wing president into power
1973 Augusto Pinochet overthrows Allende with them help of USA
1990 Pinochet's presidency ends 
2002 Ricardo Lagos Escobar first socialist president since Allende
2006 Michelled Bachelet socialist and first woman president

Maailman liput maat ja historia - Kimmo Kiljunen

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